The way organisms relate energetically to changing circumstances in their natural neighbourhood differs fundamentally from human behaviour induced by economic incentives and controls. Much current economic practice arises from singling out human identity from the wider context of natural identity, resulting in an inversion of priorities from seeking sustainable, co-creative evolutionary relationship to striving for supremacy.


A more natural inclusional form of reasoning, based on energy flow, could help us to develop systems of economic governance that encourage rather than impede sustainable human-environmental relationships. The underlying principles of these systems align with those of traditional gift flow and the dynamics of heterogeneous natural ecosystems. Here, energy is relayed continuously and reciprocally between sites of supply and sites of receipt, hence sustaining diverse, complementary functionality and avoiding cancerous monopolization. According to these principles, notions of exclusive ownership and competition or cooperation amongst independent individuals or groups are logically and ecologically unsustainable as well as a source of

profound human conflict.