Theology and Spirituality


The philosophy of natural inclusion – which may be called ‘natural inclusionality’ – is concerned only with the reality of Nature as a continuum, everywhere, without definitive limit. It hence cannot affirm or negate the reality of a supernatural deity somewhere ineffable, outside Nature, although it does recognise and respect the reality of such a deity in the imaginations and belief systems of many people.


Nonetheless, in recognising the vitality of omnipresent space as an intangible, receptive presence throughout and all around natural flow-form, natural inclusionality accords with many kinds of spirituality that view Nature itself as sacred and pervaded by Love, whether or not these are allied to any particular religious persuasion. Panentheism, the belief that everything is in God and God is in everything, corresponds especially closely with natural inclusionality in its recognition of an unknown and unknowable, infinite, intangible and transcendent realm that interplays with all that can be tangibly experienced, named and known. Mahayana Buddhism has this too, in the tradition of Nagarjuna, which recognises the mutuality of ‘Thingness’ and ‘No-thingness’ in ‘Sunyata’. So too does the concept of the all-pervasive ‘Tao’ recognised by Lao Tzu, and the ‘Logos’ of Heraclitus.